Should central banks in developing countries actively assist microfinance? And how far would any such assistance fit with contemporary views of central bank functions? Given the reliance now placed on microfinance as a tool in national anti-poverty strategies, these are important questions for central banks. This volume contains studies of central banks in twelve developing member countries of ADB: Bangladesh, People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Kyrgyz Republic, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. The studies offer recommendations for a positive central bank role in support of microfinance in each of the twelve countries. The analytical framework which underpins the country studies is developed in a companion volume that provides an overview of the issues relevant for all developing countries.